Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates in human body receives mainly from plant foods. One gram of carbohydrates there are four calories. Less than fat, but these substances are easily degraded in the body. Therefore, at their expense produced more than half of the required energy.

Depending on the structure of carbohydrates Carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex. First called sugars and starches second. Sugar, too, are simple and complex – monosaccharides and disaccharides.

To monosaccharides include glucose, fructose and galactose. They have a pronounced sweet taste and very easily digested. Glucose and sucrose in pure form in fruits and berries, and especially a lot of them in bee honey. Glucose, the most important of the sugars the body uses mainly for muscle and nervous system.

Fructose – the most common carbohydrate found in plant foods. Part of the fructose is converted to glucose in the liver, and the rest is flagged directly into the bloodstream.

Galactose does not occur naturally. It is produced by cleavage of the disaccharide lactose – carbohydrate animal origin, which is found in milk and dairy products. In the liver, galactose is converted into a more versatile energy source glucose. And the remnants of undigested lactose serve as food for the beneficial microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.

Disaccharides sucrose, lactose and maltose also easily digestible sugars. But in sweetness and solubility in water, they are inferior to monosaccharides. Sucrose is formed by molecules of glucose and fructose. Most often falls on sucrose as part of our table beet and its processing product – sugar. It contains 99.5 percent sucrose. Sugar rapidly cleaved in the gastro-intestinal tract into glucose and fructose, which are immediately absorbed into the bloodstream.

Lactose – lactose, carbohydrate animal origin consisting of galactose and glucose. To split lactose, requires a special enzyme lactase. If the body does not produce it, there comes an intolerance of milk and dairy products.

Maltose, or malt sugar, is composed of glucose. It occurs in honey, beer, malt and molasses.

For complex carbohydrates are starches, pectin and cellulose. They are very poorly soluble in water and absorbed by the body slowly, with the aid of enzymes decomposing up simple carbohydrates, mostly glucose. Starch takes up to 80 percent of the total carbohydrate entering the body with food. Most starch grains: wheat, corn, rye. Potato starch is composed of about 20 percent.

Starch animal origin called glycogen. It is synthesized by the body from simple sugars, but is extracted from the meat and products where it 1.5-2 percent. Glycogen stored in the liver and muscle fibers in case of emergency need for additional energy. For example, strenuous exercise or stress.

Pectins and cellulose, which is called dietary fiber, very poorly absorbed by the body, more than half of them being digested by the microflora in the colon. Fiber is very important for the normal functioning of the intestine, stimulating peristalsis. In addition, dietary fiber, swelling in the stomach, slowing down the process of absorption of fats and carbohydrates, allowing them to flow into the blood gradually, without delay reserve. Pectin and fiber is found in fruits and vegetables.

A significant part of modern man uses carbohydrates in the form of sucrose contained in manufactured products, confectionery and sugary drinks. But to carbohydrates gave you energy and not stored as fat reserves, the proportion of simple carbohydrates in the diet should not exceed 20-25 percent. Balance can be observed if the preference sources of complex carbohydrates and fiber: fruits, vegetables, legumes, oatmeal, pasta made from durum wheat and whole grain products.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *